Jews in England are more likely to see themselves as English rather than British, researchers at the University of Manchester have revealed.
According to an analysis of the data gathered in the 2011 census, Jews and Christians are more likely than any religious group to say English is their sole national identity.
The researchers, based at the University's Centre on Dynamics of Ethnicity, were looking at the census data and whether it confirmed or challenged expectations about British identity. They found that 54 per cent of Jews responded in this way, compared with two thirds of Christians, nearly a quarter of Buddhists and nine per cent of Hindus.
Conversely, Jewish respondents were less likely to declare themselves to have solely British - rather than English – identity, than Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Muslims.
According to the study leaders, Dr Stephen Jivraj and Professor Ludi Simpson, nine out of 10 census respondents declared a single national identity.
Dr Jivraj said: "The distinction between British and English identities continues to confuse not only tourists, but policy makers – but it's something we all need to understand more fully.
The 2011 census revealed that there were 263,346 people in England and Wales who viewed themselves as "Jewish", up from 259,927 a decade earlier.