The Egyptian authorities fired live ammunition and tear gas at groups of anti-Israel protesters after they gathered at the Israeli Embassy in Cairo on Sunday.
Officials said the protesters attacked police and threw rocks at them, and at least 185 people were arrested.
The demonstration on what Palestinians call Nakba Day, ("Catastrophe Day") the day on which the creation of Israel is mourned, saw Israeli flags burned and loud anti-Israel chanting.
Protesters also demanded the expulsion of the Israeli ambassador to Egypt.
In anticipation of violence yesterday, Egypt set up several armed checkpoints near the Gaza border.